For patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), exposure to antihyperglycemic medications (A-HgMs) is associated with a decreased risk for developing multiple sclerosis (MS) in those who are younger than 45 years and an increased risk for developing MS in those who are older than 45 years, according to a study published online Oct. 21 in Heliyon.
Gregory L. Branigan, M.D., from the University of Arizona in Tucson, and colleagues conducted a retrospective cohort analysis to examine the association between exposure to A-HgMs for T2D and MS using the Mariner claims database. Patients were followed for a mean of 6.2 years. Measured and unmeasured selection bias was minimized using a propensity score approach.
The researchers found that A-HgM exposure was associated with a reduced risk for developing MS in T2D patients younger than 45 years (relative risk, 0.22). However, in patients older than 45 years, A-HgM exposure was associated with an increased risk for MS, with women exhibiting greater risk than men (relative risks, 1.53 and 1.17, respectively). The incidence of baseline comorbidities was higher for patients who developed MS.
“These findings represent an important call to action for better understanding the interplay between the endocrine, immune, and nervous systems and the need for a precision medicine approach for prevention of multiple sclerosis in vulnerable populations,” the authors write.